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Culture Days 2022 will move closer to pre-COVID-19 events while taking pandemic lessons

Culture Days 2022 will move closer to pre-COVID-19 events while taking pandemic lessons

The 2022 edition of Culture Days is weeks away and plans are afoot to make this year’s event a return to form for the festival.

The 2022 edition of Culture Days is weeks away and plans are afoot to make this year’s event a return to form for the festival.

Several new, old and remixed events are on the calendar for this year’s observance, which starts Sept. 23 and runs until Oct. 16. A lack of public health orders and restrictions around COVID-19 will allow organizers to have full capacity events indoors and out.

“We’re still on the post-COVID-19, trying to make sure we have lined things up, but we’re very grateful to have received funding from Hudbay, from the Flin Flon School Division and of course, from the arts council – and we are planning activities,” said lead organizer Crystal Kolt.

“We’re still trying to get a feeling as to what people want to do, but this is what I know – there are some really exciting events happening that are a little bit different than the norm.”

That includes makeovers of longtime Culture Days events. One such change is the Human Books event, which has usually featured prominent Flin Flonners at the Flin Flon Public Library to share stories and their backgrounds with interested onlookers. That event, as the public has known it, has changed – Kolt said it has been replaced with a wine and cheese evening where wines will be paired with books at the library.

Other events will stay on from previous years, like the Dancing Down Main Street event, the Walking Through a Volcano tour, the Wild Things outdoor market, a film screening from the Central Canada Film Group and a return of school programming and the Superstar program, which teaches local schoolkids skills and techniques used in circus training.

Out-of-town performers will also be a major part of this year’s Culture Days, which will include two incoming acts during the course of the events. Juno award winner Serena Ryder will perform at the Flin Flon Community Hall Oct. 16, with the Ivan Flett Memorial Dancers coming from Winnipeg to perform at the hall Oct. 1. Those shows will sandwich the Wild Rice Cabaret, which is set for Oct. 8 and is a charter event for Culture Days.

Yet more events are still in the planning stages and will not likely be firmed up until closer to opening day.

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According to Carats & Cake’s First B2B Survey, 87 Percent of Event Venues and Vendors are Optimistic About the State of their Industry Coming Out of the Pandemic

According to Carats & Cake’s First B2B Survey, 87 Percent of Event Venues and Vendors are Optimistic About the State of their Industry Coming Out of the Pandemic

NEW YORK–()–Carats & Cake, the financial operating system for the events industry, today announced findings from its first quantitative B2B survey of event venues and vendors. The results revealed that 2022 restored optimism for the events industry and the wedding market is not slowing down heading into 2023. The Carats & Cake B2B Study gathered intelligence from wedding and events industry venues and vendors to better understand the landscape and priorities coming out of the pandemic.

While the pandemic affected the wedding and events industry greatly, the survey results revealed that 87% of respondents are optimistic about the current state of the events industry. In fact, 67% of respondents are fully booked for 2022 and 78.6% are already booking up for 2023, further showing that this year’s wedding boom is not slowing down. 89.9% of respondents did note that they feel helping their customers manage their budgets is somewhat to very important, making flexible payment solutions of great value given rising inflation.

Coming out of the pandemic, consumers are more cautious as they plan for big events with 57.3% of survey respondents revealing that new contract terms around cancellations are becoming common. 79.1% of vendor and venue respondents have not canceled or rescheduled any 2022 weddings pointing to a renewed sense of stability and confidence in moving forward with large scale events.

The results also revealed that:

  • 87.4% of respondents are primarily booking events with over 75 guests
  • 67.3% of respondents are working on weddings with a combination of indoor and outdoor settings
  • 59.9% of respondents feel the wedding market is “very hot” right now
  • 41.2% of respondents added new service offerings in light of the pandemic

“It’s clear that large scale events are back and bigger than ever. In this market, however, consumers are being even more conscientious about how they spend their budgets and venues and vendors are stepping up to ensure they’re part of the solution,” said Jess Conroy, Founder and CEO, Carats & Cake. “Our venue partners and industry vendors are getting heavily booked and are busy years in advance. Our survey results show that couples, while more aware of potential risks and ways to mitigate them, are feeling confident with booking and making their events come to life.”

To access the full results of the Carats & Cake survey, please visit:

About Carats & Cake

Carats & Cake is the financial operating system for the events industry. Built by industry leaders, Carats & Cake has cultivated nearly a decade of trust with best-in-class businesses. Founded in 2013 and backed by 1Sharpe Ventures, Acrew Capital, Founders Fund, Moore Specialty Credit, Correlation Ventures, GMO VenturePartners, and others, Carats & Cake delivers purpose-built sales tools and financial solutions to transform the $100B events industry.

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Hospital ‘adverse events’ rose during pandemic

Hospital 'adverse events' rose during pandemic

COVID-19 put Minnesota hospitals under extreme pressure at peak points over the past two years, and the latest adverse event data show some of the human cost.

Fatal or disabling falls of hospitalized patients increased during the pandemic, and severe bedsores appeared in unexpected places as COVID patients were rotated from their backs to their bellies for days to support their failing lungs.

Collectively, hospitals disclosed a record 508 reportable adverse events in the 12 months ending in October 2021, according to a report Wednesday by the Minnesota Department of Health. That total, exceeding the 382 disclosed the prior year, caused 207 serious injuries or corrective surgeries and 14 deaths.

While the pandemic can get the brunt of the blame, hospitals don’t get a “free pass” for errors that are ultimately preventable with the right staff and safety policies in place, said Jennifer Schoenecker, associate vice president for quality and safety for the Minnesota Hospital Association. Trends were improving before the pandemic.

Hospitals must “learn from the past couple of years and then recover,” Schoenecker said. “We know that the work we’re doing works. We are improving quality and safety, and these last two years have certainly challenged the progress we made. We need to get back now to the point where we’re going to start seeing that decline again.”

The 86 fatal or disabling falls reported Wednesday went beyond the 61 recorded the prior year and the annual average of 75 since 2010. Falls increased from seven to 15 just at the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, where COVID-related gowning and personal protection requirements made it harder for staff to get to patients in time, said Dr. Kannan Ramar, Mayo’s chief safety officer.

Mayo has an arm’s-reach policy requiring a nurse or staff member to be there any time a patient at risk of falling gets up, but it’s dependent on adequate staffing, Ramar added. “The workforce shortage and the turnover, to be honest, that doesn’t help matters,” he said.

Even COVID-related restrictions on visitors played a role, Schoenecker said, because friends and relatives can bring patients meals, phones and provide an extra set of eyes before falls occur.

The 217 severe bedsores in the latest report marked an increase from 169 the prior year as well — adding wounds and sepsis infection risks for patients who were already ill.

The average length of stay in critical care doubled to nearly 5.5 days last year, which increased the risks for largely immobile patients, according to the state report. Poorer vascular health especially increased the risks for COVID patients, who were rubbing against mattresses and tubes when they were placed face down in prone positions.

Bedsores normally appear on elbows, heels and other bony parts of the back of the body, Ramar said. “We started noticing pressure injuries in areas around the chin, the forehead area, around the breathing tube, around the mouth area — things that we hadn’t seen before,” he said.

Mayo and other hospitals saw their reportable bedsore numbers decline later in the pandemic as they became more adept at managing the new risks.

Minnesota was the first state in 2005 to publicly report adverse events by hospital. The pandemic prompted the state to pause its usual annual reporting of 29 types of adverse events, and the state belatedly released the data for reports in 2020 and 2021. There were oddities as well in the report issued last year, which covered the 12 months ending in October 2020 and included Minnesota’s first COVID wave and the start of the second.

CentraCare’s Rice Memorial Hospital in Willmar provided the state’s first-ever report of someone being injured when a metallic object was introduced in the hyper-magnetic environment of an MRI imaging bay. Spokeswoman Karna Fronden declined to elaborate, but said “for all adverse health events, we do perform a root-cause analysis to see if anything could have been done differently.”

Results of such analyses are shared statewide to prevent similar errors, part of the unique collaboration by which Minnesota hospitals endure individual humiliation as a trade-off for broader safety improvements.

Moving pieces

Pandemic pressures showed in other ways, including the discharges of children or adults lacking decisionmaking capacity on their own, or releasing them to the wrong people. Five such events were reported in the last two years, compared with two in the prior 15 years.

One case, at M Health Fairview’s Range Medical Center in Hibbing, occurred at a pandemic peak when a young adult was moved from an overcrowded emergency room to urgent care. The new caregivers discharged the patient, unaware of the requirement that legal guardians be there for pickup.

The young adult got home safely. But the health system changed its electronic medical records to make sure all caregivers are alerted to discharge instructions, said Dr. Abe Jacob, chief quality officer for the health system.

“Adverse health events are rare,” he said, “but any event in our health care system is too many.”

Rushed hospitals also reported a record 36 incidents in which irretrievable biological specimens were lost — preventing or delaying patients from being diagnosed and treated. In response, many hospitals added tamper-proof containers and secure delivery systems because many specimens were lost in transit, said Rachel Jokela, director of the state’s adverse event reporting system.

“That falls in line with some of what we saw related to health care in the pandemic,” she said. “There were so many moving pieces that sometimes things got lost in the shuffle, unfortunately.”

Surgical adverse events increased statewide from 73 to 90 in the most recent year, but that was somewhat expected. Surgical volumes declined in 2020, when the state canceled nonemergency procedures for two months during the beginning of the pandemic. The number of scheduled operations rebounded in 2021.

The total included 36 occasions in which needles, sponges, catheters and other objects were accidentally left inside patients. The state in 2020 changed its reporting of these incidents to make sure that any resulting in a corrective procedure was classified as a serious injury.

Only eight injuries and one death from such surgical errors had been reported before 2020, but 53 injuries have been disclosed in the last three reports.

Jokela said she was proud that hospitals maintained reporting and safety procedures through the pandemic, preventing other surgical errors with no direct COVID connection.

“It’s not like we saw surgical events go through the roof,” she said. “Those event numbers were very in line with where they were pre-pandemic.”

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Launch event: “Implication of the COVID-19 Pandemic for Patient Safety: a rapid review”


Tuesday 9 August 2022

14:00 – 15:30  CET



The COVID-19 pandemic has profoundly impacted nearly all countries’ health systems and diminished their capability to provide safe health care, specifically due to errors, harm and delays in diagnosis, treatment and care management. “Implications of the COVID-19 pandemic for patient safety: a rapid review” emphasizes the high risk of avoidable harm to patients, health workers, and the general public, and exposes a range of safety gaps across all core components of health systems at all levels. The disruptive and transformative impacts of the pandemic have confirmed patient safety as a critical health system issue and a global public health concern.

The objectives of the event are :

•provide an overview of implications of the COVID-19 pandemic for patients, health workers, and the general public

•highlight importance of managing risks and addressing avoidable harm in a pandemic situation

•discuss implications of the pandemic for patient safety within broader context of preparedness, response and recovery

•lay the foundation for follow-up work around generating more robust evidence and supporting countries in their efforts to build resilient and safer health care systems. 

The session will be available in English, French and Spanish.



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Coal Dust Days Festival in Cape Breton returns after two years of pandemic cancellations | SaltWire

Coal Dust Days Festival in Cape Breton returns after two years of pandemic cancellations | SaltWire

A sense of community. 

It’s one way to describe the importance of the annual New Waterford Coal Dust Days Festival each year. From seeing old friends at events to having a reason to come home, the festival has a purpose for current and former residents. 

However, there hasn’t been much to celebrate over the past two years in the community. Like all festivals, the Coal Dust Days committee was forced to cancel their festival in 2020 and 2021 due to the COVID-19 pandemic and provincial restrictions.

With restrictions lifted and the province now fully reopened, the Coal Dust Days Festival is set to make its return next week with weeklong events kicking off on Monday in the community. 

Joey Lever, board member for Coal Dust Days, said the committee is excited to be back and ready to move past the pandemic-related cancellations. 

“We think the community needs this back,” said Lever. “It’s a chance to be together again after two years of being stuck at home and it’s a chance to gather and celebrate.”

This year will mark the 37th edition of the Coal Dust Days Festival. After being off the past two summers, Lever admits there’s been a bit of an adjustment period preparing for the festival. 

“It’s more about getting our heads around it again,” said Lever, noting the committee began planning for this year’s festival in February. 

“You roll it out the same way every year. There’s a blueprint for Plummer Avenue Day and the car show and we have great partners with the Cape Breton Regional Municipality and volunteers who also help us along the way.”

The festival will feature both committee-organized and community-hosted events, running until July 24.

One of the larger events organized by the committee is Plummer Avenue Day, which will feature local vendors, entertainment and games on the town’s main street on Thursday. The event runs from 11 a.m. to 5 p.m. and will finish with a concert from 7-10:30 p.m. featuring Hearts of Kin and Cherrybomb. 

Lever confirmed vendor spots are almost sold out. He anticipates this year’s Plummer Avenue Day to be a record year. 

“If we have the weather, we’re expecting great crowds and everyone to be out,” said Lever. “It’s a great event for people to bump into each other and see people that they haven’t seen in a while and just get out on the main street where they may not have had that chance in a little while.” 

‘It ran its course’

Among the events not returning this year is the Coal Dust Days Tavern Tour, which was one of the more popular attractions when the festival first began for both participants and local establishments. 

Lever said there were several reasons for the committee discontinuing the event. 

“The crowds have been down the last couple of festivals, a lot of people weren’t attending and that was a big reason for it,” he said. “I think the committee and the bars have dealt with a lot of underage drinkers and stuff, so it was really hard to keep a handle on it and make it safe for everybody.”

While it’s too early to confirm, Lever doesn’t anticipate the committee running the event in future festivals, but it’s not to say a tavern tour won’t happen.

“I don’t foresee the committee planning that event anymore – I think it ran its course,” said Lever. “There’s community-organized events, so if a community group wanted to host such a thing they could put it in the brochure.” 

The festival will also not include a parade this year. Lever said the committee removed itself from parades in 2015, noting a community group had tried to organize those events in the past. 

Other events

Some of the highlighted events for the festival include the Kay MacSween Memorial Walk the Loop at 9 a.m. on Monday at Rose Schwartz Park as well as the Family Walk-In Drive-In at 7 p.m. at the New Waterford and District Community Centre.

The annual antique and custom car show will be held on Tuesday from 6-9 p.m. on Plummer Avenue, while the Susan Coombes Memorial Teddy Bear Picnic and Sobeys Children’s Festival will be held on Wednesday from 1-4 p.m. at Colliery Lands Park. 

The closing concert will take place on July 24 at Colliery Lands Park and will feature The Non Essentials Band, beginning at 7:30 p.m. Fireworks will take place at dusk. 

Some events to look out for are listed below. For a full list of festival events, visit the festival’s Facebook page by searching New Waterford Coal Dust Days.

Coal Dust Days highlights

Monday, July 18

• 9 a.m. – Kay MacSween Memorial Walk the Loop beginning at Rose Schwartz Park

• 7 p.m. – Family Walk-In Drive-In, New Waterford and District Community Centre

Tuesday, July 19

• 10 a.m. – Coal Dust Days Bicycle Rodeo, New Waterford Fire Department

• 6-9 p.m. – 13th annual Antique and Custom Car Show, Plummer Avenue

Wednesday, July 20

• 1-4 p.m. – Susan Coombes Memorial Teddy Bear Picnic and Sobeys Children’s Festival, Colliery Lands Park

Thursday, July 21

• 11 a.m. to 5 p.m. – Plummer Avenue Day

• 7-10:30 p.m. – Plummer Avenue Day Wrap-Up Party featuring Hearts of Kin and Cherrybomb

Saturday, July 23

• All Day – New Waterford Credit Union Minor Baseball Day

• 12 p.m. – Kids Fun Day, New Waterford Fire Hall

Sunday, July 24

• 7:30-9:30 p.m. – Coal Dust Days Closing Concert, Colliery Lands Park

• Dusk – Fireworks

Jeremy Fraser is a reporter for the Cape Breton Post. Follow him on Twitter @CBPost_Jeremy.

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Father’s Day fundraiser returns in-person for the first time since pandemic

Father's Day fundraiser returns in-person for the first time since pandemic

Hundreds of Islanders celebrated their Father’s Day morning by running to raise awareness about prostate cancer.

The Island Prostate Centre held its 22nd annual running event, with this year being the first in-person event in a couple of years.

“The last couple of years have been hard because of COVID. We were doing virtual events but we are so happy to be back today doing a live in-person event,” said Executive Director of the Island Prostate Centre Leanne Kopp.

According to Kopp, events like the Father’s Day run are what help fund the Island Prostate Centre as the organization does not receive government funding. This made being able to bring this event back in-person all the more significant.

Participants of the event had the option of going on either a 3 km or 5 km run, with pancakes and other activities waiting for them at the finish line. The winner of this year’s 5 km race, Paul Siluch, is a prostate cancer survivor himself.

“I had prostate cancer around 2014, and I’ve survived it. And not only that but I’ve won the race this year so [it shows] you can win a race without a prostate,” joked Siluch.

This year’s run raised over $60,000 and brought together more than 200 people.

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Fundraisers in Edmonton return to in-person events after pandemic pivots

Fundraisers in Edmonton return to in-person events after pandemic pivots

After two years of online fundraisers and events, Edmontonians were excited to get out Saturday in-person and with friends for good causes.

Hundreds of bikers and their co-pilots stopped in Onoway, Alta., as part of a more than 200-kilometre fundraiser for cancer research.

During the height of the pandemic, the Ride for Dad event, like other charity fundraisers, continued but had to pivot. Riders were encouraged to ride solo.

“It was different,” said participant Nathan Brennan.

“It was still good,” Brennan added. “We still made the ride. But this is far better than riding by yourself.”

“There’s a comradery or a brotherhood among the riders,” said Darcy Daigle, Ride for Dad spokesperson. “And I think they’re more comfortable riding in a big group like this.”

Walkers attending the Walk Together For ALS had similar feelings.

Organizers say the event went virtual for the last two years. While the events were still successful, Karen Caughey, the ALS Society of Alberta’s executive director, said there’s more to them than just raising money.

“Having people come back in person, this is what it’s all about,” Caughey said. “It is about fundraising, but it’s also about community.”

At Commonwealth Stadium, the Relay for Life took place to raise money for research and programs supporting those with cancer.

Participants form teams with one person on the track during the seven-hour event.

“To show that we’re never alone and it’s always a group,” said Janet Dixie. “That we’re here together to fight cancer.”

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Manitoban organizations see volunteer shortage amidst return to in-person events – Winnipeg |

Manitoban organizations see volunteer shortage amidst return to in-person events - Winnipeg |

The cut-back on COVID-19 restrictions is prompting Manitoban charities, festivals and organizations to return to in-person events, but finding volunteers is becoming a bigger challenge than in previous years.

The Manitoba Marathon’s first full-scale event in years is two weeks away.

Upwards of 6,000 runners have signed up, but executive director Rachel Munday says their volunteer turnout is down by 30 per cent.

Read more:

Manitoba Marathon returns with in-person race for first time in 2 years

“It might not seem very much when you say 30 per cent, but every volunteer that we have is needed. Everyone does an important role.”

Munday says prior to the pandemic, the Manitoba Marathon had a manageable handful of helpers not return each year, but with three years passed, the number has become exponentially larger.

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“It’s not that people don’t want to volunteer,” she says. “I think it’s just like a culmination of all these years of not putting a race on.”

Volunteer Manitoba’s communication manager, Dawn Bourbonnais, says it’s “a perfect storm of a lot of different things” that are contributing to a volunteer shortage.

“I think we’re in a period where the last two years is meeting the next two years. We’ve scaled back on volunteers right across the board over the pandemic.”

According to Bourbonnais, most volunteers are senior citizens who, for a number of reasons, are hesitant to offer their time.

Read more:

Winnipeg pride festival draws biggest crowd in its history after two-year hiatus

Aside from health risks related to the pandemic, she says people’s attitudes around donating spare time have changed in recent years.

“Everybody’s just coming out of the long winter that we’ve had and gone, ‘Wait, I can do things in person again,’” she says. “So it’s competition for people’s time.

“All of us have redefined what our time means to us in the last two years. We’ve all looked at the value of our time and where to best deploy it.”

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Bourbonnais says organizations might have to change the way they recruit helpers by offering shorter shifts and emphasizing the impact their time would have on the community. She also says having a volunteer manager on the team is critical.

“When you lose that connection with your volunteer team and you lose that sort of that leader, that grand marshal, the champion of what it is you’re doing and the person who’s responsible for recruiting those volunteers and making sure that they’re properly engaged within the organization — if you don’t have that person there, then you’re going to see a loss.”

Munday says plans are underway to have a safe event with the volunteers they have, but extra help won’t be turned away.

Click to play video: 'Winkler care home asking families to volunteer due to concerns over staff refusing vaccine'

Winkler care home asking families to volunteer due to concerns over staff refusing vaccine

Winkler care home asking families to volunteer due to concerns over staff refusing vaccine – Oct 15, 2021

“We like to respect everybody’s time and make it fun, and so the more people we can find to come out in any capacity, the better — the better it is for us and for all of our other volunteers as well.”

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Anyone interested in helping out can head to the Manitoba Marathon website and check out the opportunities listed on the volunteer page.

© 2022 Global News, a division of Corus Entertainment Inc.

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COVID-19 superspreader events typically originate from few carriers

Study: Analysis of overdispersion in airborne transmission of COVID-19. Image Credit: oxinoxi / Shutterstock

A recent research paper published in the journal Physics of Fluids analyzed the overdispersion in the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) airborne transmission.

Study: Analysis of overdispersion in airborne transmission of COVID-19. Image Credit: oxinoxi / ShutterstockStudy: Analysis of overdispersion in airborne transmission of COVID-19. ​​​​​​​Image Credit: oxinoxi / Shutterstock


The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic has been characterized by overdispersion and superspreading events comparable to SARS and other respiratory virus outbreaks. Any incident that results in more than the typical number of secondary transmissions is referred to as superspreading.

Overdispersion is a non-random trend of grouping in the context of contagious diseases, which frequently involves a large proportion of zero cases and a limited percentage of large outbreaks.

Nevertheless, the specific functions and influences of established physical and viral factors correlated to transmission processes on overdispersion are still unknown. Moreover, the characteristics and nature of superspreading episodes are instrumental in explaining the spread of SARS-CoV-2. To date, mechanistic simulations depicting airborne transmission have not been combined with real-world occupancy and distribution data to better explain large-scale characteristics of disease dynamics, such as transmissibility overdispersion.

About the study

In the present study, the authors used real-world occupancy information from over 100,000 social contact contexts in 10 United States (US) metropolises to undertake mechanistic modeling of COVID-19 point-source transmission via infectious aerosols. The primary purpose of this study was to use the molecular basis of airborne disease transmission to investigate event-level SARS-CoV-2 spread overdispersion utilizing real-world data from a significant number of social engagements.

The team tried to establish an algorithm centered on aerosol dispersion with randomized data and obtainable occupancy information to derive the distribution of the number of secondary infections for every infectious case. They investigated whether observed trends of overdispersion in secondary transmissions could be replicated through simulations utilizing the above algorithm.

Further, the scientists aimed to develop an analytical function (rather than a fit) that may explain the probability density function of the number of secondary infections arising from the dynamics of the problem. Furthermore, they attempted to determine the dominant factors that cause overdispersion and the consequences for mitigation strategies.

To achieve this, the scientists used 100,000 random social-contact conditions to solve an aerosol dispersal model by combining real-world area and occupancy data with practical ventilation and viral load rate to attain the probability distributions for the number of secondary infections for each infectious case in those situations.

Results and discussions

According to the simulated results, the aerosol transmission pathway was compatible with overdispersed individual COVID-19 infectivity. In addition, with exposure time, ventilation rate, and speaking time, SARS-CoV-2 load fluctuation was the most substantial factor controlling secondary attack rates. According to the authors, they, for the first time, generated analytical equations that precisely characterized the modeled probability density functions of secondary attack and infection rates. Besides, the generated analytical expressions revealed how the quantitative link among personal-level viral load variance and event-level occupancy governs overdispersion simultaneously.

These findings reveal that even in the case of airborne transmission, about 4% of index cases in indoor contexts were responsible for 80% of secondary cases, underlining the need for identifying and concentrating mitigation efforts on superspreading event causes. The results emphasize the significance of interventions, including isolation through rapid testing to identify intense viral shedding periods, for reducing exposures during stages of heightened viral shedding, improved ventilation, and the higher likelihood of outbreaks with SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOCs) correlated with superior viral loads. Ultimately, considering viral burden and occupancy over indoor environments, the present analytical function may predict the spatially specified likelihood of outbreaks and outbreak magnitude via point-source transmission events.


Overall, the study findings demonstrated that around 4% of COVID-19 index cases possibly caused 80% of secondary SARS-CoV-2 infections, resulting in an extended tail probability distribution function of secondary infections per infectious event. Overdispersion appears to be notably driven by personal-level heterogeneity in SARS-CoV-2 load, with occupancy coming in second. The team then developed an analytical function that mimics the modeled SARS-CoV-2 overdispersion. Further, they illustrated the efficacy of potential COVID-19 mitigation techniques using this analytical function.

The present analysis adds a relevant dimension to the growing body of proof regarding SARS-CoV-2 airborne transmission by linking the mechanistic insights of COVID-19 aerosol spread with reported large-scale epidemiological features of outbreaks and thus unfolds as a potent tool for evaluating the likelihood of epidemics and the possible effects of mitigation actions on extensive disease dynamics. The simulation in this article covers overdispersion in the number of secondary cases rendered by each infectious case over an hour in such 100000 instances, assuming one index case at each site. The team mentioned that when combined with appropriate data, the current analytical expressions created and confirmed using simulations could explain overdispersion through drastically broader timeframes and contact vicinities.

Journal reference: