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By Dana A. Goward
Earlier this month, the International Telecommunications Union (ITU) issued a circular urging its member states to prevent interference with GNSS signals and receivers.
ITU is the latest United Nations body to express such concerns and issue an advisory. The International Maritime Organization issued a similar document in 2021, as did the International Civil Aeronautics Organization in 2020.
ITU is the United Nations agency that deals with information and communications technology. Its remit includes coordinating spectrum use and satellite orbits.
ITU’s Radio Communications Bureau sponsors the World Radiocommunication Conference every three to four years. The issue of interference with GNSS signals was reported at the 2019 conference.
Since that time, according to this month’s circular, the group “has been informed of a significant number of cases of harmful interference to the radionavigation-satellite service…”
Despite concerns expressed by maritime and other interests, the circular focuses entirely on aviation interference. It says the reports it has received have been about “receivers onboard aircrafts and causing degradation or total loss of the service for passenger, cargo and humanitarian flights…” These have included “misleading information provided by RNSS [radionavigation satellite service] receivers to pilots.” An often cited example of this is a well-publicized 2019 incident in Sun Valley, Idaho. In that case a passenger aircraft nearly hit a mountain.
Describing interference with GNSS as a global and recurrent problem, the circular cites data collected by a major aircraft manufacturer. The company found “10,843 radio-frequency interference events … globally in 2021. The majority of these events occurred in the Middle East region, but several events were also detected in the European, North American and Asian regions.”
This year’s uptick in GNSS interference in Scandinavia, the Baltics, and around Ukraine since Russia’s February invasion of Ukraine is not mentioned. This is likely due, in part, to timing. ITU’s Radio Regulations Board met in March 2022 and directed the circular be issued.
Many within the positioning, navigation, and timing community have long asserted that interference with GNSS signals, whether deliberate or accidental, constitutes a violation of ITU rules and regulations. This month’s circular affirms this and cites several applicable provisions.
These include prohibitions on harmful interference with any authorized radio frequency transmission, requirements for users to transmit only in bands for which they have authorization, and for all to generally safeguard aviation operations.
The circular highlights provision 15.1 of ITU’s Radio Regulations as particularly applicable. It states:
“All stations are forbidden to carry out unnecessary transmissions, or the transmission of superfluous signals, or the transmission of false or misleading signals, or the transmission of signals without identification…”
As is the case with almost all international agreements, enforcement of ITU rules is the responsibility of its member states.
While most expect the advisory to have little immediate impact on reducing global interference with GNSS signals, it does help reinforce the issue as one of international concern.
According to a retired government official, “Member states that fail to comply with international rules to which they have agreed lose credibility and standing in the community of nations. Even when they have little credibility or standing to begin with, the behavior adds to their marginalization and life is just a little more difficult for them. This can, in the long run, nudge them toward being more responsible players.”
SHANGHAI, June 9 (Reuters) – Tesla was proceeding with an online hiring event in China on Thursday and added two dozen new job postings for the country, a week after Elon Musk threatened job cuts at the electric car maker and said the company was “overstaffed” in some areas.
Tesla (TSLA.O) plans to hold the event online starting from 7 p.m. Shanghai time (1100 GMT) and will recruit staff for “smart manufacturing” roles, according to an online post.
Tesla has 224 current openings in China for managers and engineers under that category, according to a separate post on its WeChat account, 24 of which were newly posted on June 9.
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Among the posted positions are managers and engineers to supervise the operation of its 6,000-ton die casting machines known as Giga Press, one of the world’s biggest.
Tesla regularly holds such hiring events online in China, with the latest one held in May for summer interns.
Tesla’s China revenue more than doubled in 2021 from a year ago, contributing to a quarter of the total income for the U.S. automaker.
The Shanghai plant, which manufactures Model 3 and Model Ys for domestic sale and export, produced more than half of the cars it made last year and Tesla is also planning to expand the factory. read more
However, output at the plant was badly hit by Shanghai’s two-month COVID-19 lockdown that saw it halt work for 22 days and later struggle to return to full production. Prior to this, Tesla had planned to ramp up production at the plant to 22,000 cars a week by mid-May.
Musk, the chief executive, said in an email seen by Reuters last week that he had a “super bad feeling” about the economy and needed to cut 10% of staff at the electric car maker. The email was titled “pause all hiring worldwide”. read more
In another email to employees on Friday, Musk said Tesla would reduce salaried headcount by 10%, as it has become “overstaffed in many areas” but added that “hourly headcount will increase”.
However on Saturday he backed away from the emails, saying total headcount would increase over the next 12 months and the number of salaried staff should be little changed. read more
Musk had not commented specifically on staffing in China.
Musk last month compared U.S. workers to those in China, saying American workers tended to try to avoid going to work whereas Chinese workers would not leave the factories.
“They will be burning the 3 a.m. oil,” he said at a conference of Chinese workers.
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Reporting by Zhang Yan and Brenda Goh; Editing by Stephen Coates
Our Standards: The Thomson Reuters Trust Principles.
The FDA has received more than 100 adverse event reports related to children and adults who consumed edible products containing THC, including hospitalizations.
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is warning consumers about the accidental ingestion of food products containing tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) by children.
The FDA has been made aware that some manufacturers are packaging and labeling edible products containing THC to look like popular brands of commonly consumed foods. These products are packaged to look like Cap’n Crunch, Cocoa Pebbles, Cocoa Puffs, Froot Loops, Fruity Pebbles, Nerds Ropes, Starbursts, Sour Patch Kids, and Trix, among others.
These products appeal to children and may be easily mistaken for popular and well-recognized foods, according to the FDA.
There have been multiple media reports describing children and adults who accidentally consumed copycat edible products containing THC and experienced adverse events.
From January 2021 through April 24, 2022, the FDA received more than 100 adverse event reports. Some individuals who ate these edible products reportedly experienced adverse events such as hallucinations, increased heart rate and vomiting, and many required medical intervention or hospital admission.
Seven of the reports specifically mention the edible product to be a copycat of popular foods, such as Cocoa Pebbles, Nerds Rope, Skittles, Sour Patch Kids, and Starburst.
The FDA is actively working with federal and state partners to further address the concerns related to these products and monitoring the market for adverse events, product complaints and other emerging cannabis-derived products of potential concern.
Consumers should call 9-1-1 or get emergency medical help right away if they or someone in their care has serious side effects from these products. Always keep these products in a safe place out of reach of children.
Consumers should call the poison control center at 800-222-1222 if a child has consumed these products. Do not wait for symptoms to call.
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